WORKING at first with four birds (A, B, C and D) I made the following observations on the songs of Chaffinches (FringiUa c. gengleri) in a coastal area of south Devon during the spring of 1942. B and C held adjacent territories and their songs were inter-audible, but A's territory was separated from these by a river and marsh and D's from A's by a small town ; so there was no chance of imitation of ...

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