In most countries within its Palearctic distribution, the Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix is thought to be in serious decline (Cramp & Simmons 1980). In Wales, since the late 1940s, there has been some extension in range and increase in numbers, perhaps linked with new conifer plantations (Parslow 1973), but certainly since 1980, and probably since the mid-1970s, the Welsh population has

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