Klaudia Litwiniak, Marcin Przymencki and Albert de Jong / June 2021 – vol. 114, issue 6, pp 331–340 Abstract The Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans has undergone a considerable range expansion in the last 100 years. This expansion is ongoing and, over recent decades, the species has established itself as a breeding bird in central and western Europe. The total central and western European population is estimated to number at least 7,600 pairs, including sizeable breeding populatio... This article is only available to registered users.To read more, please log in or purchase a subscription.