The Forest of Bowland, in Lancashire, has been one of the key areas in England for breeding Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus over the past 50 years and, when designated as a Special Protection Area in 1993, supported 12 breeding pairs. In the 1980s, up to 40 nesting attempts were recorded in one year, but since then the species has declined to such an extent that there were no nesting attempts in four

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